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Crankshaft design requirements and working conditions
文章来源:www.biyezuopin.cc   发布者:大学生毕业作品网站  

Crankshaft is in constant cyclical changes in the gas pressure, reciprocating and rotating motion of the inertial force and the quality of their work under the joint action of the moment, so that both the torsion and bending the crankshaft, resulting in fatigue, stress state; internal imbalance of the engine crankshaft also withstand bending moment and shear force; not taken measures to make the crankshaft torsional vibration damping effect may also be a large amplitude torsional elastic torque. These loads are cross degeneration, may cause fatigue failure of the crankshaft. Practice shows that the bending has a decisive role in bending fatigue failure is the main failure modes. Therefore, the structural strength of the crankshaft bending fatigue strength is the focus, the crankshaft is designed to be committed to improving the fatigue strength of the crankshaft.

    Crankshaft complex shape, stress concentration is very serious, especially in the connecting rod journal and the crank arm of the fillet and lubricants at the stress concentration near the exit hole is particularly prominent. Common crankshaft fracture, fatigue crack begins with fillet and the hole place. Figure 7-1 shows the crankshaft bending fatigue and fatigue failure of the reverse situation. Root bending fatigue cracks in the surface of the fillet from the journal at the development of the crank, the crank is basically broken into 450; torsion fatigue damage is usually bad from the machining start hole edge, about 450 cut into the crank pin. Therefore, in the design of the crankshaft, pay special attention to finding ways to ease stress concentration, strengthen the stress concentration.

    Crankshaft journal at a very high ratio of pressure to a large relative velocity of sliding friction in the bearings in place. The bearings in the actual operation conditions changed conditions does not always guarantee a liquid friction, especially when the oil is not clean, the journal was a strong abrasive wear surface, making the actual life of the crankshaft greatly reduced. Therefore, the design, to wear to the friction surface, and the appropriate material bearing a good match.

    Crank in the crankshaft is the central link, the stiffness is very important. If the crankshaft bending stiffness, then the possible occurrence of more severe bending, the piston rod and bearing deterioration in working conditions greatly affect the reliability of these parts work and durability, even the crankcase is too large and the local stress cracking. Crankshaft's torsional stiffness is poor, the working speed range may be a strong torsional vibration. Ranging from noise, such as transmission gear on the crank to accelerate the wear; while in the crankshaft fracture. Therefore, the design should ensure it has the highest possible bending stiffness and torsional stiffness.

    As the crankshaft by the power complex, geometric cross-section shape is rather special, in the design, has yet to reflect the objective reality of a theoretical formula for Universal. Therefore, the current design of the crankshaft design relies mainly on experience.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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