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Hydraulic turbines and hydropower
文章来源:www.biyezuopin.cc   发布者:学生毕业作品网站   发布时间:2019-01-02 08:59:09   阅读:594

Hydraulic turbines and hydropower

Abstract

Power may be developed from water by three fundamental processes : by action of its weight, of its pressure, or of its velocity, or by a combination of any or all three. In modern practice the Pelton or impulse wheel is the only type which obtains power by a single process the action of one or more high-velocity jets. This type of wheel is usually found in high-head developments. Faraday had shown that when a coil is rotated in a magnetic field electricity is generated. Thus, in order to produce electrical energy, it is necessary that we should produce mechanical energy, which can be used to rotate the ?coil?. The mechanical energy is produced by running a prime mover (known as turbine ) by the energy of fuels or flowing water. This mechanical power is converted into electrical power by electric generator which is directly coupled to the shaft of turbine and is thus run by turbine. The electrical power, which is consequently obtained at the terminals of the generator, is then transited to the area where it is to be used for doing work.he plant or machinery which is required to produce electricity (i.e. prime mover +electric generator) is collectively known as power plant. The building, in which the entire machinery along with other auxiliary units is installed, is known as power house.

Keywords hydraulic turbines hydro-electric power classification of hydel plants

head scheme

There has been practically no increase in the efficiency of hydraulic turbines since about 1925, when maximum efficiencies reached 93% or more. As far as maximum efficiency is concerned, the hydraulic turbine has about reached the practicable limit of development. Nevertheless, in recent years, there has been a rapid and marked increase in the physical size and horsepower capacity of individual units.

In addition, there has been considerable research into the cause and prevention of cavitation, which allows the advantages of higher specific speeds to be obtained at higher heads than formerly were considered advisable. The net effect of this progress with larger units, higher specific speed, and simplification and improvements in design has been to retain for the hydraulic turbine the important place which it has

long held at one of the most important prime movers.

1. types of hydraulic turbines

Hydraulic turbines may be grouped in two general classes: the impulse type which utilizes the kinetic energy of a high-velocity jet which acts upon only a small part of the circumference at any instant, and the reaction type which develops power from the combined action of pressure and velocity of the water that completely fills the runner and water passages. The reaction group is divided into two general types: the Francis, sometimes called the reaction type, and the propeller type. The propeller class is also further subdivided into the fixed-blade propeller type, and the adjustable-blade type of which the Kaplan is representative.

1.1 impulse wheels

With the impulse wheel the potential energy of the water in the penstock is transformed into kinetic energy in a jet issuing from the orifice of a nozzle. This jet discharge freely into the atmosphere inside the wheel housing and strikes against the bowl-shaped buckets of the runner. At each revolution the bucket enters, passes through, and passes out of the jet, during which time it receives the full impact force of the jet. This produces a rapid hammer blow upon the bucket. At the same time the bucket is subjected to the centrifugal force tending to separate the bucket from its disk. On account of the stresses so produced and also the scouring effects of the water flowing over the working surface of the bowl, material of high quality of resistance against hydraulic wear and fatigue is required. Only for very low heads can cast iron be employed. Bronze and annealed cast steel are normally used.

1.2 Francis runners

With the Francis type the water enters from a casing or flume with a relatively low velocity, passes through guide vanes or gates located around the circumstance, and flows through the runner, from which it discharges into a draft tube sealed below the tail-water level. All the runner passages are completely filled with water, which acts upon the whole circumference of the runner. Only a portion of the power is derived from the dynamic action due to the velocity of the water, a large part of the power being obtained from the difference in pressure acting on the front and back of the runner buckets. The draft tube allows maximum utilization of the available head, both because of the suction created below the runner by the vertical column of water and because the outlet of he draft tube is larger than the throat just below the runner, thus utilizing a part of the kinetic energy of the water leaving the runner blades.

1.3 propeller runners

nherently suitable for low-head developments, the propeller-type unit has effected marked economics within the range of head to which it is adapted. The higher speed of this type of turbine results in a lower-cost generator and somewhat smaller powerhouse substructure and superstructure. Propeller-type runners for low heads and

small outputs are sometimes constructed of cast iron. For heads above 20 ft, they are made of cast steel, a much more reliable material. Large-diameter propellers may have individual blades fastened to the hub.

1.4 adjustable-blade runners

The adjustable-blade propeller type is a development from the fixed-blade propeller wheel. One of the best-known units of this type is the Kaplan unit, in which the blades may be rotated to the most efficient angle by a hydraulic servomotor. A cam on the governor is used to cause the blade angle to change with the gate position so that high efficiency is always obtained at almost any percentage of full load.

By reason of its high efficiency at all gate openings, the adjustable-blade propeller-type unit is particularly applicable to low-head developments where conditions are such that the units must be operated at varying load and varying head. Capital cost and maintenance for such units are necessarily higher than for fixed-blade propeller-type units operated at the point of maximum efficiency.

2. thermal and hydropower

As stated earlier, the turbine blades can be made to run by the energy of fuels or flowing water. When fuel is used to produce steam for running the steam turbine, then the power generated is known as thermal power. The fuel which is to be used for generating steam may either be an ordinary fuel such as coal, fuel oil, etc., or atomic fuel or nuclear fuel. Coal is simply burnt to produce steam from water and is the simplest and oldest type of fuel. Diesel oil, etc. may also be used as fuels for producing steam. Atomic fuels such as uranium or thorium may also be used to produce steam. When conventional type of fuels such s coal, oil, etc. (called fossils ) is used to produce steam for running the turbines, the power house is generally called an Ordinary thermal power station or Thermal power station. But when atomic fuel is used to produce steam, the power station, which is essentially a thermal power station, is called an atomic power station or nuclear power station. In an ordinary thermal power station, steam is produced in a water boiler, while in the atomic power station; the boiler is replaced y a nuclear reactor and steam generator for raising steam. The electric power generated in both these cases is known as thermal power and the scheme is called thermal power scheme.

But, when the energy of the flowing water is used to run the turbines, then the electricity generated is called hydroelectric power. This scheme is known as hydro scheme, and the power house is known as hydel power station or hydroelectric power station. In a hydro scheme, a certain quantity of water at a certain potential head is essentially made to flow through the turbines. The head causing flow runs the turbine blades, and thus producing electricity from the generator coupled to turbine. In this chapter, we are concerned with hydel scheme only.

3.classification of hydel plants

Hydro-plants may be classified on the basis of hydraulic characteristics as follow: ① run-off river plants .②storage plants.③pumped storage plants.④tidal plants. they are described below.

(1) Run-off river plants.

These plants are those which utilize the minimum flow in a river having no appreciable pondage on its upstream side. A weir or a barrage is sometimes constructed across a river simply to raise and maintain the water level at a pre-determined level within narrow limits of fluctuations, either solely for the power plants or for some other purpose where the power plant may be incidental. Such a scheme is essentially a low head scheme and may be suitable only on a perennial river having sufficient dry weather flow of such a magnitude as to make the development worthwhile.

Run-off river plants generally have a very limited storage capacity, and can use water only when it comes. This small storage capacity is provided for meeting the hourly fluctuations of load. When the available discharge at site is more than the demand (during off-peak hours ) the excess water is temporarily stored in the pond on the upstream side of the barrage, which is then utilized during the peak hours.

he various examples of run-off the river pant are: Ganguwal and Kolta power houses located on Nangal Hydel Channel, Mohammad Pur and Pathri power houses on Ganga Canal and Sarda power house on Sarda Canal.

The various stations constructed on irrigation channels at the sites of falls, also fall under this category of plants.

(2) Storage plants

A storage plant is essentially having an upstream storage reservoir of sufficient size so as to permit, sufficient carryover storage from the monsoon season to the dry summer season, and thus to develop a firm flow substantially more than minimum natural flow. In this scheme, a dam is constructed across the river and the power house may be located at the foot of the dam such as in Bhakra, Hirakud, Rihand projects etc. the power house may sometimes be located much away from the dam (on the downstream side). In such a case, the power house is located at the end of tunnels which carry water from the reservoir. The tunnels are connected to the power house machines by means of pressure pen-stocks which may either be underground (as in Mainthon and Koyna projects) or may be kept exposed (as in Kundah project).

When the power house is located near the dam, as is generally done in the low head installations ; it is known as concentrated fall hydroelectric development. But when the water is carried to the power house at a considerable distance from the dam through a canal, tunnel, or pen-stock; it is known as a divided fall development.

(3) Pumped storage plants.

A pumped storage plant generates power during peak hours, but during the

off-peak hours, water is pumped back from the tail water pool to the headwater pool for future use. The pumps are run by some secondary power from some other plant in the system. The plant is thus primarily meant for assisting an existing thermal plant or some other hydel plant.

During peak hours, the water flows from the reservoir to the turbine and electricity is generated. During off-peak hours, the excess power is available from some other plant, and is utilized for pumping water from the tail pool to the head pool, this minor plant thus supplements the power of another major plant. In such a scheme, the same water is utilized again and again and no water is wasted.

For heads varying between 15m to 90m, reservoir pump turbines have been devised, which can function both as a turbine as well as a pump. Such reversible turbines can work at relatively high efficiencies and can help in reducing the cost of such a plant. Similarly, the same electrical machine can be used both as a generator as well as a motor by reversing the poles. The provision of such a scheme helps considerably in improving the load factor of the power system.

(4) Tidal plants

Tidal plants for generation of electric power are the recent and modern advancements, and essentially work on the principle that there is a rise in seawater during high tide period and a fall during the low ebb period. The water rises and falls twice a day; each fall cycle occupying about 12 hours and 25 minutes. The advantage of this rise and fall of water is taken in a tidal plant. In other words, the tidal range, i.e. the difference between high and low tide levels is utilized to generate power. This is accomplished by constructing a basin separated from the ocean by a partition wall and installing turbines in opening through this wall.

Water passes from the ocean to the basin during high tides, and thus running the turbines and generating electric power. During low tidethe water from the basin runs back to ocean, which can also be utilized to generate electric power, provided special turbines which can generate power for either direction of flow are installed. Such plants are useful at places where tidal range is high. Rance power station in France is an example of this type of power station. The tidal range at this place is of the order of 11 meters. This power house contains 9 units of 38,000 kW.

4.Hydro-plants or hydroelectric schemes may be classified on the basis of operating head on turbines as follows: ① low head scheme (head<15m),②medium head scheme (head varies between 15m to 60 m) ,③high head scheme (head>60m). They are described below:

(1) Low head scheme.

A low head scheme is one which uses water head of less than 15 meters or so. A run off river plant is essentially a low head scheme, a weir or a barrage is constructed to raise the water level, and the power house is constructed either in continuation with

the barrage or at somedistanthe barrage or at some distance downstream of the barrage, where water is taken to the power house through an intake canal.

(2) Medium head scheme

A medium head scheme is one which used water head varying between 15 to 60 meters or so. This scheme is thus essentially a dam reservoir scheme, although the dam height is mediocre. This scheme is having features somewhere between low had scheme and high head scheme.

(3) High head scheme.

A high head scheme is one which uses water head of more than 60m or so. A dam of sufficient height is, therefore, required to be constructed, so as to store water on the upstream side and to utilize this water throughout the year. High head schemes up to heights of 1,800 meters have been developed. The common examples of such a scheme are: Bhakra dam in (Punjab), Rihand dam in (U.P.), and Hoover dam in (U.S.A), etc.

The naturally available high falls can also be developed for generating electric power. The common examples of such power developments are: Jog Falls in India, and Niagara Falls in U.S.A.

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