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The information management system brief introduction
文章来源:www.biyezuopin.cc   发布者:学生毕业作品网站   发布时间:2019-02-06 10:48:55   阅读:830

The information management system brief introduction

   A. output background of the management information system

    The information is a kind of resources, in pass by of 30 years, the every trade usually all had not a few managers and administrations the mastermind treated the data processing and calculators isolatedly.Result in the reason of this kind of viewpoint is, the data processing( DP) and the information service( IS) the personnel does not wish to use easily drive the language that customer( namely the personnel of" usage" calculator) comprehend and customer carries on the exchanges.The manager lacks the interest and inabilities as dint to this kind of exchanges, cause defer the development of the calculator system, thus fostering to live in isolation in many other aspects and the phenomenon of the redundancy labor.

    Communicate with the information attendant in the customer aspect, there is no an unit hope can make perfect, but, have some units indeed to have already obtained the more very successful experience.The customer thinks with some units of the information attendant  match tacit understanding:This kind of successful reason lie in, the customer has already controled basic knowledge of the calculator and the information resources management.It is thus clear that, customer the manager controls the knowledge of this aspect is very necessary.Perfectly right, the information serve what professional personnel is to have this aspect knowledge, but to use a manager to acquire these knowledges, must pass the regular study, reading and fulfillments.Together between the information attendant relation of appropriate processing customer, can strengthen the both parties to work in coordination.For building up and supporting an information system of high quantity, the everyone must respect the will of the other party.The good and bad of the system quantity is direct to become the direct proportion with customer and a quality for work in coordination of the information attendant.Every those customer managers who would not like to control the basic knowledge of relevant calculator and the information resources  management aspects and administration mastermind, will become the behind the time necessarily, participate the development trends that the information system develops the process directly in current this kind of encouragement customer especially under.Recommend in the past, customer manager to a large extent is depend on the information attendant, the information system that development and realizations need of.Owing to the information service needs the continuous development variety, leaving the responsibility that discriminates and raises the system now to customer- this is also a reason should of.The customer participates the development of the information system morely, this kind of trend as early as 70's the middle started, and, from that time hereafter develop constantly, have already entered the information attendant now together ages of the customer cooperation.Because only have the customer to even understand that they want to get from the information system by themselves what.

    The customer participates the typical model case performance of the information resources management( IRM) in the distribute type  data processing( DDP) aspect.In this aspect, the customer not only need to attend the development of the system, and but also need to be responsible for the hardware equipments that manage the system movement's demand and personnel.People did not know until most in the last few years:The information is a kind of resources, must take into the exploitation to this kind of worthy resources, don't make it the white white run to waste.In compete the environment of the vehemence, manager and administration the mastermind must make use of the information availably, otherwise hard have a foothold in the invincible position.In the past, manager only the calculator see is a saving money of tool, but now, the calculator is see is a tool that created the profits.Each companies have a great deal of of, didn't°yet discover of, can make use of the potential of the calculator and the information resources.Discover this kind of potential the knowledge level of the calculator and the information processing that demand have, is most managers and the administration mastermind's what lies in one's powers of.

 

B. basic type of the information system

    The information system can be artificial or according to calculator of, independent or comprehensive of, become to criticize processing of or machine of.The usual information system is the combination of above-mentioned various type.Certainly it can't be independent again comprehensive,1.The independent system is for satisfying a certain and particular applied realm( such as, personal management) but design.The independent system contain its own document, these documents take to have the certain redundancy by all means.2.The comprehensive information system passes the data that they use but drive comprehensive together.The system makes use of a database with commonly shared resources to attain the comprehensive purpose.For example, the wages system requests to find out the data from the human resource system and accountancy's systems in go order.3.Taking the artificial system as the foundation has already developped a calculator information system of various each kind.So far, while carry on the artificial" the calculator turn", still lack to design the experience and( or) the want for information attendants and exchanges between customers.Also is to say, drew lessons from the workflow of the artificial system directly according to the workflow of the system of the calculator.Usually these systems are independent, and used to only the calculator to handle the machine for the data.While design these systems, few in consideration of end want intention that they synthesize.4.The information system also can press criticize processing, the machine processing or two combinationses to categorize.In become criticize handle system, divide business and datas to criticize a ground of processing or the creation statement.For example, the bank code a great deal of check, then at a day end, criticize the place check separately, row preface and carry on the processing.Again such as, for prevent°froming the airline pulling in the tower a sell the ticket to order with in Atlanta of another sell the last ticket that the ticket orders to sell some one service gone to San Francisco from Los Angeles at the same time, the airline system book the ticket to must be the machine of  , with the current appearance of the reflection database.Most s  machine information system also has results to show the request of criticize the processing.Even appeared the information resources  management( IRM) system, and after the potential of the calculator information system got extensive acknowledgement, most systems are still independent criticize to handle the system.Now these system in the most has already lost the use value, and is re- designed comprehensive of, the system of the machine .Pass the definition can know,"ing comprehensive" to request the business realm manager and company the leadership cooperates closely.The information serve the professional personnel and can be the adviser, but relevant comprehensive information system and the business realm of conflict and difference then should be solve by the customer group.Environment that solves these differences to synthesize with the real realization is the information attendant to customer the manager put forward of challenge.

 

C. social influence of the information system

The social influence of various company  information system is the responsibility that the information serves the manager and professional realm managers.Should check all plans in of and existing information system, to distinguish whether these systems will bring the harmful society influence or not.Should check the existing system with regularity specially.The society influence may be internal, be also likely to be exterior or two and but have it.The serious degree of affect will involve from the officers and workers not like this kind of short date of a certain new method to affect because the calculator turns but makes some officers and workerses reduce such long-term influence.These circumstances explained the information system  harmful internal society influence.If know that the particular and applied system that a certain calculator of realization( under the condition of some, only is design) turn will bring the harmful society influence in advance, so customer the manager should serve the manager and company management section with information to cooperate, responding this kind of influence to contract to minimum extent.The exterior society influence involves with those person who the company has the friendly intercourse.( customer, client, attendant, creditor etc.)The change of a certain procedure is also possible to bring important influence to the image of the companies, thus also affecting the profits of the company.For example, a very and greatly the nationwide public enterprise  company decision repeal is in 12 service organizations of small town, then request the residents of these towns and will pay to mail the company originally department, that company did not estimate the influence that this kind of  change on the policy bring.The residents are angry with can't directly hand over style give native organization.Unique result is the organization that the public enterprise company must re- set up those places, and examine from the beginning lately- install accept the debt system.

 

D. the function and the responsibility of the customer and the information service department

    A quantity of information system and a benefits with future company, on the very big degree dependence hence denied to rule the function and the responsibility of the customer and the information service department clearly.The function and responsibilities of the underneath are in keeping with to most units, however for ising suitable for own circumstance and shoulding still make a little amount of modification.

The function and the responsibility of the customer:

 1.The information system  policy committee( ISPC).The information serves the deluxe coordination commission, usually being leader by the high class of the customer to constitute.Therefore, the responsibility of that committee is the responsibility of the customer.ISPC approval to some gravenesses request that information serve, build up having the initiative the class system, solve the difference between each section and build up the first-degree information service counterplan of company.

 2.Accept the reform.The calculator turn, in regard to its essence, mean the reform.But the person does not wish to accept the reform essentially.The whole section brush-off of the some business realm carries out the circumstance of an information system not seldom seen.Even if to the personnel assurance of that section and they also believe that the end product will raise the rate of production that they work and make under personal satisfied circumstance, also still such.The manager of the customer has the responsibility creation the appropriate environment to accept the ineluctable reform- carry out a calculator  information system in that company.Perform is one of the best paths that encouragement accepts to reform probably.Perform a successful information system( is the company inner part in spite of of or exterior of) needs to cost some time properly.Should encourage the people to carry on the exchanges with those persons who turns the aspect to be subjected to" frustrate" in the calculator.

 3.The system service claim.The plait writes the service claim and hands over is the responsibility of the end customer for the information service department.

 

4.To the support of the information service item.Isn't the member of an item set even if, customer the manager still should participate the activity of the item, because the end product of the item set is end will to the method, work of the section and succeed to produce the important influence.Should request the customer manager is after each important stage complete" the signing approve".Some customer managers exist a kind of innocent viewpoint, they think that the normal progress of the item is a naturally of, but system will completely according to hope to was so complete, the procedure that signing approve is the responsibility of the customer, and for the success of the item is to go to pass important.This kind of signing not only mean the satisfied approval that designs to the basic system, and but also mean the approbation toward the detailed function manual.Manager and their employees of customers should meet the relevant item to constitute the member, comprehending and agreeing with the system suggest for them every way to carry on the pit actually.At the stage of Ⅱ end can't still over-emphasize the importance of the signing approbation, because the that time system  function a manual still" is freeze of".At the system of the modification ratio that stage of Ⅱ do realization after do the manpower that same modification need to want to be little and have to have another.For example, may need a person only to the modification of some document design to can complete no longer than a day in stage of Ⅱ , but after system carry out, do the same modification and may request several individuals to do a few months.The customer should find out the blemish as early as possible, and before understanding the system thoroughly, before use the section satisfaction, do not sign the approbation.

5.Educate.The manager of the customer and customer the personnel is responsible for the training that provides the business to the information attendant.( for example, stock method, the open account principle...etc.)According to the size of the item set, this kind of training can summit the form to carry on with the personal form or group.If customer the manager can recommend some informations sources( such as book, magazine, regular course...etc.) that can make use of also helpful to training.The customer also may need to be some to have something to do with training of calculator and the information system of knowledge.The information service department will be responsible for this kind of training.The customer just attends the training.The contents of this kind of training includes to be like how to use the calculator hardware, according to the work principle of the calculator system and involve the training of not deeply general calculator knowledge etc. topic.

6.The data records to go into.According to the scope that the traditional information  service working talent distribute, the customer group may participate almost all aspects of the information service.( include to record to go into the program design from the data)At least, the customer section wants to be responsible for the importation of the system.In the machine system, the data importation still include to is a readable form of machine the original data conversion that comes from the video frequency manifestation equipments.In become criticize handle system, the customer is responsible for completing accurate and legal original data.Then record these original datas criticize separately erupt the data of send to the information service into the section.This kind of a serious problem that becomes to criticize to turn to record the processing is many character lists are" illegal" in the original data, this will cause to usually make a phone call for the customer section or seek to come or saved into in the database bad or the data of the mistake.The manager of the customer should know the legitimacy and the accuracy equal importance of the character list.Should encourage the importance that clerk's personnel knows accurate and clean and neat twos.

 7.For provide of information service hand over the fee.According to the dissimilarity of each company policy, the service that the customer section may provide to the information service department pay all or parts of expenses or not pay, have already adopted a typical model to charge those companies of system and will consult with, analyze the member and program designs service, use the hardware  machine and use to save the machine and materials to the inner part, charge to the customer open account. 8.The periodical evaluation information system.An information system( its ownership) from the customer section own, not from the information service department own.Therefore, carry on to their information system the regular commentary with regularity is the customer  manager's responsibility.These comment on, will rise a kind of aggressive function for the improvement system.

The function and the responsibility of the information service department:

1.Keep advanced sex on the technique.Because the technique of the modern is in the variety everyday, the company can't neglect to decline low cost and suggest the opportunity of the high performance.For making use of the existing technique, the information attendant must be join force to keep advanced sex on the technique with one mind.The information service department and customers manage the technique invention that the section should notice to those to raise the rate of production and efficiency probably.

2.Rise to promote the function.In the aspects of discovering the new information system and raising the existing information system, the information attendant should rise to promote the function.Any improvement  data processing or management make policy the opportunities of the process and should cause concerning the business realm  manager's attention. 3.Provide to suggest the source.The information attendant is to provide the suggestion and advisory headsprings toward the customer group.The information service department should provide an organization( for example, customer contact section), for the purpose of customer can pass that organization request  suggestion of the relevant calculator and the information processing.

4.Help the customer in system develop process.The system development process press half to half of comparisons, from the expert of the business realm with( the information system aspect) technique the expert combine together, developping together a take calculator as the basal information system.By 1980, it is the responsibility of the information service department that popular viewpoint is the system development in customer and the information attendants.Today, the information system is own by customer, therefore, the system development is the responsibility of the customer.The responsibility of the information service department is an information system item that"s help" the customer to carry out them.

5.Provide the movement ability for the information system.The information service department is responsible for a part that produces the system to have something to do with hardware.Certainly, this is is not suitable for in to distribute the data processing environment also.So-called have something to do with hardware the part includes the engine room, control, output's to send out to record to go into with data.( only rightness become criticize to handle the environment)The responsibility concerning database, sometimes will produce to confuse.The company database is saving saving equipments at the big capacity that be control by the information attendant and operate up.The managing person of the database is responsible for the physics and logical maintenances of the database.However, to any change of the database is to is carried on the push by the customer importation, therefore, the accuracy of the database is from the customer be responsible for, not database managing person is responsible of.

6.Support the data of the information system.To the whichever and existing information system, the complete set data includes the " circulate the order", the database data( may support one or several information systemses) and user's manuals of the system and program design data, the calculator operator.Must reflect to any improvement of the system in above-mentioned data, these datas are distribute by the information attendant and support.

7.For the company whole turn to provide the help.The data becomes comprehensive( combination) tool of company.Each company, the education section and the government agency all exist the redundancy in the data and procedureses.The information service department contain responsibility provide the ability( hardware and expert) on the technique to remove this kind of phenomenon.8.Provide to educate the project( outline) toward the customer.Nowadays widespread viewpoint is, the customer handle the education of the aspect in the calculator and information, having the important influence successfully for an unit.The manager of the customer and deluxe administration leadership is making use of the professional public lecturer and facing to the book and the inner part colloquium of the customer well.The information service department be responsible for organize the customer manager of internal public lecturer.Handle the knowledge in the calculator and information, exist thus a kind of request, educate the reasonable charges to the customer namely, even in the small company also such.

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